Archive for the ‘Botany’ Category

At the Penang Botanic Garden   Leave a comment


At the Penang Botanic Garden

At the Penang Botanic Garden

At the Penang Botanic Garden

At the Penang Botanic Garden

At the Penang Botanic Garden

At the Penang Botanic Garden

At the Penang Botanic Garden

At the Penang Botanic Garden

At the Penang Botanic Garden

At the Penang Botanic Garden

At the Penang Botanic Garden

At the Penang Botanic Garden

At the Penang Botanic Garden

At the Penang Botanic Garden

At the Penang Botanic Garden

At the Penang Botanic Garden

At the Penang Botanic Garden

Flora of Myanmar   Leave a comment


Flora of Myanmar (Burma)

Flora of Myanmar (Burma)

Flora of Myanmar (Burma)

Flora of Myanmar   Leave a comment


Flora of Myanmar

Flora of Myanmar

Flora of Myanmar

Flora of Myanmar   Leave a comment


Flora of Myanmar

Flora of Myanmar

Flora of Myanmar

 

Taiping Lake Gardens   3 comments


Taiping Lake Gardens

Taiping Lake Gardens is the first public garden established during the British rule in Malaysia. The garden is located near Bukit Larut, and is equidistant to the town centre and the Taiping Zoo.

Taiping Lake Gardens

Taiping Lake Gardens

Taiping Lake Gardens

Taiping Lake Gardens

History

The Taiping Lake Gardens was originally a mining ground before it was established as a public garden in 1880. The idea of a public garden was the brainchild of Colonel Robert Sandilands Frowd Walker. The garden was developed by Charles Compton Reade (1880–1933), who was also responsible for planning the Kuala Lumpur garden town, together with Lady Swettenham.

The abandoned tin mine ground was donated by Chung Thye Phin as a recreation park for public use. In 1884 the gardens were planted with grasses, flowers and trees; a part of the gardens was fenced, to keep bulls out.

Taiping Lake Gardens

Taiping Lake Gardens

Taiping Lake Gardens

Taiping Lake Gardens

The 64 hectares (160 acres) site was the first public garden in Malaya, and was cherished for its beauty; it has been well-maintained since its opening. There are ten scenic lakes and ponds, which highlight the gardens. Along Residency Road, near the gardens, were golden rain trees (Malay: angsana) (pterocarpus indicus) planted along the pathway. In George L. Peet’s A Journal in the Federal Capital, when he visited Taiping in 1933 he said “I know of no more lovely sight in this country than the Taiping gardens when the rays of the early morning sun are shining obliquely through their clumps of bamboo, palms and isolated trees scattered on islands among the expanse of water. One receives in that glorious half hour an experience of light in foliage that is quite unobtainable in England”.

There are few private and government houses located near the gardens; among them are the Old Residency (home of the Secretary to the Resident), the Raja’s House at the junction of Birch Road and Residency Road and the army officers’ residences on Batu Tugoh Road. The gardens were so striking that they attracted many travelers to write of their beauty:

 

Taiping Lake Gardens

Taiping Lake Gardens

Taiping Lake Gardens

Taiping Lake Gardens

Attractions

  • Lakes and ponds – There are about 10 man-made lakes and ponds distributed throughout the gardens.
  • Maxwell Hill (Bukit Larut) – A hill station with an altitude of about 1000m; ideal for jungle-trekking and camping. Accessible by four-wheel drive; accommodation available on the hilltop. No reservations; visitors must go early (at 8 am) to buy tickets for the day. Visitors must specify what time they want to go up and what time to come down. Cost is RM4.00 (US$1.40) per person, round trip. One option is to hike up, which takes an average of 2-3/4 hours (one way); the jeep journey takes 25 minutes.
  • Tulip garden – Located at Bukit Larut, it is the first tulip farm established in Malaysia. Admission to the tulip farm is RM1 (US$0.35) outside tulip season and RM2 (US$0.70) during the season.
  • Taiping Zoo and Night Safari Taiping – First zoo to be established in Malaysia; popular on weekends with day-trippers from out of town
    • Day zoo: adults RM12, child (3–12 years) RM8 (US$2.80); discounts available for school groups, senior citizens (age 55+) and tourist groups (20 or more); open 08:30-18:00, feeding times 10 am and noon
    • Night safari: adults RM20, child (3–12 years) RM10 (US$3.50); discounts available for senior citizens (60+) and tourist groups (20+); open 20:00-23:00 (closes at midnight on Saturdays and the eve of public holidays)

Inserted by SP Lim from Wikipedia.

Thai Floating Market comes to Penang   5 comments


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Thai Floating Market comes to Penang
A mock-up replica of a Thai Floating Market of small boats or sampans with many varieties of Thai fruits and vegetables only, took shape in a shopping mall in George Town, Penang. The shopping mall management has come up with foreign country-based themes for decorations in this shopping mall. The creativity is drawing a lot of shoppers and visitors to this new shopping mall even with outstation tourists (from other States outside Penang).
Happy shopping, happy visiting and happy shooting for photographers like us.

SP Lim

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Coconut Trees, Palm Trees and others   Leave a comment


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Coconut Trees, Palm Trees and others
It was such a hot and sunny day with blue sky. The coconut trees, palm trees and other species of trees are enjoying the sunlight for their photosynthesis and generating oxygen for us in return of absorbing the carbon dioxide. What a great recyclable action by these plants towards humankind.
So I took these photographs to appreciate the excellent work done by these green plants to us. Thank you.

SP Lim

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From Wikipedia
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. In looser senses, the taller palms, the tree ferns, bananas and bamboos are also trees. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. The tallest known tree, a coast redwood named Hyperion, stands 115.6 m (379 ft) high. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. It is estimated that there are just over 3 trillion mature trees in the world.

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A tree typically has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk. This trunk typically contains woody tissue for strength, and vascular tissue to carry materials from one part of the tree to another. For most trees it is surrounded by a layer of bark which serves as a protective barrier. Below the ground, the roots branch and spread out widely; they serve to anchor the tree and extract moisture and nutrients from the soil. Above ground, the branches divide into smaller branches and shoots. The shoots typically bear leaves, which capture light energy and convert it into sugars by photosynthesis, providing the food for the tree’s growth and development. Flowers and fruit may also be present, but some trees, such as conifers, instead have pollen cones and seed cones; others, such as tree ferns, produce spores instead.

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Trees play a significant role in reducing erosion and moderating the climate. They remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store large quantities of carbon in their tissues. Trees and forests provide a habitat for many species of animals and plants. Tropical rainforests are one of the most biodiverse habitats in the world. Trees provide shade and shelter, timber for construction, fuel for cooking and heating, and fruit for food as well as having many other uses. In parts of the world, forests are shrinking as trees are cleared to increase the amount of land available for agriculture. Because of their longevity and usefulness, trees have always been revered and they play a role in many of the world’s mythologies.

Inserted by SP Lim
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A Trip to the Monkey Cup Garden at Penang Hill   1 comment



A Trip to the Monkey Cup Garden at Penang Hill

From Wikipedia:-
A vine (Latin vīnea “grapevine”, “vineyard”, from vīnum “wine”) in the narrowest sense is the grapevine (Vitis), but more generally it can refer to any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems or runners. The word also can refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance when used in wicker work.
In the United Kingdom, the term “vine” applies almost exclusively to the grapevine. The term “climber” is used for all climbing plants.

Nepenthes, a genus of carnivorous plants known as tropical pitcher plants or monkey cups Pandorea pandorana, the wonga wonga vine Parthenocissus quinquefolia
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Nepenthes rajah /nɨˈpɛnθiːz ˈrɑːdʒə/ is an insectivorous pitcher plant species of the Nepenthaceae family. It is endemic to Mount Kinabalu and neighbouring Mount Tambuyukon in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Nepenthes rajah grows exclusively on serpentine substrates, particularly in areas of seeping ground water where the soil is loose and permanently moist. The species has an altitudinal range of 1500 to 2650 m a.s.l. and is thus considered a highland or sub-alpine plant. Due to its localised distribution, N. rajah is classified as an endangered species by the IUCN and listed on CITES Appendix I.

The species was collected by Hugh Low on Mount Kinabalu in 1858, and described the following year by Joseph Dalton Hooker, who named it after James Brooke, the first White Rajah of Sarawak. Hooker called it “one of the most striking vegetable productions hither-to discovered”. Since being introduced into cultivation in 1881, Nepenthes rajah has always been a much sought-after species. For a long time, the plant was seldom seen in private collections due to its rarity, price, and specialised growing requirements. However, recent advances in tissue culture technology have resulted in prices falling dramatically, and N. rajah is now relatively widespread in cultivation.

Nepenthes rajah is most famous for the giant urn-shaped traps it produces, which can grow up to 41 cm high and 20 cm wide. These are capable of holding 3.5 litres of water and in excess of 2.5 litres of digestive fluid, making them probably the largest in the genus by volume. Another morphological feature of N. rajah is the peltate leaf attachment of the lamina and tendril, which is present in only a few other species.

The plant is known to occasionally trap vertebrates and even small mammals, with drowned rats having been observed in the pitcher-shaped traps. It is one of only two Nepenthes species documented as having caught mammalian prey in the wild, the other being N. rafflesiana. N. rajah is also known to occasionally trap small vertebrates such as frogs, lizards and even birds, although these cases probably involve sick animals and certainly do not represent the norm. Insects, and particularly ants, comprise the staple prey in both aerial and terrestrial pitchers.
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Although Nepenthes rajah is most famous for trapping and digesting animals, its pitchers are also host to a large number of other organisms, which are thought to form a mutually beneficial (symbiotic) association with the plant. Many of these animals are so specialised that they cannot survive anywhere else, and are referred to as nepenthebionts. N. rajah has two such mosquito taxa named after it: Culex rajah and Toxorhynchites rajah.

Another key feature of N. rajah is the relative ease with which it is able to hybridise in the wild. Hybrids between it and all other Nepenthes species on Mount Kinabalu have been recorded. However, due to the slow-growing nature of N. rajah, few hybrids involving the species have been artificially produced yet.

Inserted by SP Lim
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Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods. Carnivorous plants have adapted to grow in places with high light where the soil is thin or poor in nutrients, especially nitrogen, such as acidic bogs and rock outcroppings. Charles Darwin wrote Insectivorous Plants, the first well-known treatise on carnivorous plants, in 1875.

True carnivory is thought to have evolved independently nine times in five different orders of flowering plants, and is represented by more than a dozen genera. This classification includes at least 583 species that attract, trap and kill prey, absorbing the resulting available nutrients. Additionally, over 300 protocarnivorous plant species in several genera show some but not all of these characteristics.

Orchids   Leave a comment


Orchids
Orchidaceae is a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and often fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family. Along with the Asteraceae, they are one of the two largest families of flowering plants. Orchidaceae has about 27,800 currently accepted species, distributed in about 880 genera. The determination of which family is larger is still under debate, because verified data on the members of such enormous families are continually in flux. Regardless, the number of orchid species nearly equals the number of bony fishes and is more than twice the number of bird species, and about four times the number of mammal species. The family also encompasses about 6–11% of all seed plants. The largest genera are Bulbophyllum (2,000 species), Epidendrum (1,500 species), Dendrobium (1,400 species) and Pleurothallis (1,000 species).

The family also includes Vanilla (the genus of the vanilla plant), Orchis (type genus), and many commonly cultivated plants such as Phalaenopsis and Cattleya. Moreover, since the introduction of tropical species into cultivation in the 19th century, horticulturists have produced more than 100,000 hybrids and cultivars.

Inserted by SP Lim from Wikipedia

Some of the Floral Arrangements at the Penang Ohara Floral Art Society 35th Anniversary Dinner   Leave a comment


Some of the Floral Arrangements at the Penang Ohara Floral Art Society 35th Anniversary Dinner

From Wikipedia:-

Floristry is the production, commerce and trade in flowers. It encompasses flower care and handling, floral design or flower arranging, merchandising, and display and flower delivery. Wholesale florists sell bulk flowers and related supplies to professionals in the trade. Retail florists offer fresh flowers and related products and services to consumers.

Floristry can involve the cultivation of flowers as well as their arrangement, and to the business of selling them. Much of the raw material supplied for the floristry trade comes from the cut flower industry. Florist shops, along with online stores are the main flower-only outlets, but supermarkets, garden supply stores and filling stations also sell flowers.

Floral design or floral arts is the art of creating flower arrangements in vases, bowls, baskets or other containers, or making bouquets and compositions from cut flowers, foliages, herbs, ornamental grasses and other plant materials. Often the terms “floral design” and “floristry” are considered synonymous. Florists are people who work with flowers and plants, generally at the retail level. Floristry differs from floristics, the study of distribution and relationships of plant species over geographic areas. Floristry also differs from horticulture, which more broadly relates to the cultivation of flowers and plants so they will remain fresh as long as possible, and would be desirable for purchase, which also involves knowledge of customers’ requirements and expectations. The ability to create a variety of floral designs such as wreaths, bouquets, corsages, boutonnières/’buttonholes’, permanent arrangements and other more complicated arrangements is also important.

Education, both formal and informal, is another significant segment of the floristry industry. Established floristry designers and artists impart their craft to students interested in floral design as hobby or career. Courses are generally available through community colleges, private post-secondary vocational schools, and professional florist trade associations.

The floristry business has a significant market in the corporate and social event world, as flowers play a large part in the decor of special events and meetings. Centerpieces, entryways, reception tables, bridal bouquets, wedding chuppahs and stage sets are only a few examples of how flowers are used in the business and social event settings. Flowers are also traditionally used in ecclesiastical settings and their arrangement is often done by skilled church volunteers.

Styles of floristry
Many nations have their own style of floral arranging. This is dependent on what flower varieties are readily available and the culture of the nation.

Ikebana

Child learning the art of Ikebana. Today, florists in Japan also sell pre-arranged or done-while-you-wait ikebanas to go.
Ikebana is a style of floral design that originated in Japan. Best known for its simplicity of line and form, Ikebana is a design style primarily practiced[citation needed] for personal enjoyment. It has three parts of alignment: heaven, man, and earth.

English Garden
English Garden style is traditionally an English form of floral design. Stems are placed in a radial fashion and feature abundant use of seasonal flowers and foliages. These designs are often done as low, tufted mounds, or taller vase arrangements that are all-sided (360°), and incorporate garden flowers like roses, gardenia, camellia, delphinium and peonies. The flowers are usually arranged with minimal space between the blooms and foliage is used to accent the flowers as these are the main feature. [clarification needed]

Modern/European Style
Modern/European Style floristry involves contemporary, linear designs that highlight unique forms of both individual floral materials and of the designs themselves. Arrangements generally feature negative space and incorporate asymmetric placement of materials. The style stands in direct contrast to traditional radial arrangements such as English Garden. Modern designs are identified by their play on the space used between each bloom, which is often dramatic, and the play on the use of color and different textures, which can be quite experimental.

Modern/European Style designs often incorporate unique, exotic or tropical flowers such as Bird of Paradise, Orchids Anthurium and Protea but may also employ more common blossoms, such as Roses, Gerberas and lilies.

Inserted from Wikipedia by SP Lim

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